Category Archives: Previews

St. Mary Schola Offers a Believable Orpheus

St. Mary Schola
Cathedral Church of St. Luke
June 13, 2017
by Christopher Hyde

Quick, name an opera with a happy ending. Against the parade of those one knows will end badly, I can think immediately only of “Der Freischutz” and Gluck’s “Orpheo ed Euridice.” The former ends with the hero undergoing a year of probation, and the latter with a dance in the temple of love, after a deus ex machina, Amore, reverses the tragedy.

The excerpts from “Orpheo,” performed Tuesday night by St. Mary Schola at St. Luke’s, fulfilled Mark Twain’s dream of an opera composed entirely of the parts you have to wait too long for: Orpheus’ journey to Hell, his charming of the vengeful spirits, his rescue and loss of Eurydice, and the reuniting of the lovers by Amore, plus nymphs and shepherds at the end.

(Someday, when I figure out the mechanics of it, I’m going to post the dawn serenade of our Airedale and his Golden Doodle friend, which makes Gluck’s Cerberus music seem tame.)

All the sung parts, the chorus and the orchestra of period instruments, plus guest artist Virginia Flanagan on harp, were uniformly excellent, but the surprise of the evening was the voice of counter-tenor Christopher Garrepy, which suddenly made understandable the use of that range by Purcell and his contemporaries for heroic roles.

In Gluck’s scoring, the counter-tenor voice, as clear and resonant as a classic mezzo-soprano, but with a feeling of reserved power, is ravishing, taming the Furies like Daniel Webster’s oratory to the damned in Hell. His aria, “Che farò senza Euridice,” was worth the price of admission.

Garrepy was well supported by soprano Erin Chenard, a believably jealous Eurydice, and soprano Molly Harmon as a no-nonsense, take-no-prisoners Amore. The final dance-like stanzas by soloists and chorus in the Temple of Love were as delightful as Gluck meant them to be.

The first half of the program, though equally well presented, was not as satisfying to modern ears, although the scenes of dancing around the Maypole, and some risqué verses, were often charming. I find the part singing of Morley, Dowland and their contemporaries on the continent a bit puzzling. The polyphony is intricate but it has no nodes—points were the vocal lines converge into harmonic chords. The melodies are not the sort one goes home whistling.

That the disconnect is the fault of the modern ear was borne out by the increasing sense of familiarity with time, in works by Purcell and Monteverdi. The latter contends with Gluck as the inventor of modern opera, and his dance music in “Il Ballo” is equally good.

The final concert of the St. Mary Schola Spring Series, “A Musical Banquet,” will be 7:30 p.m., June 16, at the Cathedral of the Immaculate Conception in Portland, It should not be missed.

Christopher Hyde is a writer and musician who lives in Pownal, He can be reached at classbeat@netscape.net.

Concertos and Brandenburg Concertos

Concertos and Brandenburg Concertos
Portland Bach Festival
June 17-25, 2017
by Christopher Hyde

I don’t know which of Bach’s Brandenburg Concertos are most popular, but my favorites are No. 5, with its virtuoso keyboard passages, played at last year’s Portland Bach Festival by Arthur Haas on the harpsichord, and No 2, with its rousing piccolo trumpet part, to be performed this year on June 18 at St. Mary’s Church in Falmouth by John Thiessen.

Thiessen is noted for his virtuosity on this instrument, and the No. 2, with returning Festival artists, should be as outstanding as No. 5.

Haas will be returning as well, in the Vivaldi Flute Concerto in D Minor, with Emi Ferguson, flute, June 22 at Etz Chaim Synagog, and the Bach Harpsichord Concerto in D Major (BWV 1067) in the Sanctuary at St. Luke’s on June 23. He will appear in a number of other concerts, since  harpsichord continuo is virtually a necessity for baroque music, plus participating in a post concert lecture at Etz Chaim.

If the Brandenburg Concerto No. 3 in G Major (BWV 1048) is your cup of tea, you can hear that one too at St. Luke’s, plus the Orchestral Suite No. 2 in B Minor (BWV 1067), and the Motet “Jesu meine Freude” (BWV 227) by the Oratorio Chorale and soloists under Emily Isaacson.

The penultimate concert, June 24 at St. Luke’s,  promises to be something entirely different, featuring works that influenced Bach and others that were influenced by him, including a trio sonata by CPE Bach, the Vivaldi “Winter” Concerto and a Ligeti viola sonata.

The final work of the Festival will be the Cantata “Jauchzet Gott in allen Landen” (BWV 51) with soprano Sherezade Panthaki, whom Festival founder Lewis Kaplan calls “the greatest baroque soprano I have ever heard.” Be sure to hear her and soprano Jolle Greenleaf in the François Couperin “ Troisième Leçon à deux voix“ at the “Before and After” concert.

Cellist Beiliang Zhu will once again be playing an Amati lent to her by Florian Leonhard Fine Violins, who will also be binging other famous baroque instruments for display at the Bach and Beer event on June 19.

For further details of concerts and events, visit www.portlandbachfestival.org.

Christopher Hyde is a writer and musician who lives in Pownal, He can be reached at classbeat@netscape.net.

Second Bach Festival Offers Even More

Second Portland Bach Festival
Offers Even More
by Christopher Hyde

The first Portland Bach Festival, in June of 2016, was one of the most successful premieres in recent Maine history. In fact, it was so popular that it was difficult to find seats at some of the smaller venues.

This year’s festival, June 17-25, will maintain the world-class quality of solo and ensemble performance, while adding some new features intended to broaden its audience, according to associate artistic director Emily Isaacson , who with violinist Lewis Kaplan founded and co-directed the first programs.

The festival will open with one of its most unusual concerts: “Bachtails” at the newly renovated Bayside Bowl on Alder Street in Portland. The facilities are large and complex, with room for 15 different 15-minute performances in various areas, including the rooftop, beginning at around 5:00 p.m. with “Musical Games for Kids.”
Visitors can hear all of the performances, or just one or two, Isaacson said, while enjoying cocktails, wine and beer, the last of which H.L. Mencken declared “the universal solvent for the music of old J.S. Bach.” Admission is free but drinks and food are not.

“The less formal setting for hearing early music is not that unusual,” Isaacson pointed out, since much of Bach’s non-liturgical music was meant to be heard in an intimate social setting rather than a concert hall.

The second public concert will be on Sunday, June 18, 6:30 p.m., at St. Mary’s Church in Falmouth. Tickets will be required for the concert inside the church, but it will also be broadcast on a large screen outside for the general public. “Bach on a Blanket” will feature the Brandenburg Concerto No. 2, in F Major, and the Cantata “Herz und mund,“ with soloists, the Oratorio Chorale and the Festival Orchestra conduced by Lewis Kaplan.

Both free concerts are an extension of last year’s popular “Bach and Beer” party at Ocean Gateway, which this year will be on Monday, June 19.

Bach Virtuosi Institute, June 14-25

In what Isaacson believes is the first program of its kind in the country, exceptional students from around the world will attend a twelve-day program to refine their craft, focus on the performance practice of Baroque music, and immerse themselves in the music of Bach and those inspired by his work.

The Bach Virtuosi Institute focuses on learning through performance. Fellows will perform alongside distinguished international musicians in an intimate, collegial atmosphere. Limited enrollment (10 students this year) allows all participants significant coaching and performance opportunities. Selected Fellows will perform in PBF concerts, Bach Virtuosi concerts,  at “Bach and Beer,” and at outreach concerts in the community.

All participants receive a full scholarship including tuition, room and board and stipend

For the ultimate in outreach, there will be a Cantata Sing-Along at St. Mary’s on Wednesday, June 21, with soloists and piano accompaniment to the early Cantata “Christ lag in Totes Banden (BWV 4).

For further information about individual concerts, visit www.portlandbachfestival.org. Advance tickets, including season passes, are still available but they are going fast. The first festival was sold out.

Christopher Hyde is a writer and musician who lies in Pownal. He can be reached at classbeat@netscape.net.

Awadagin Pratt Graces DaPonte 25th Anniversary

DaPonte String Quartet
25th Anniversary Concert
Studzinski Hall, Bowdoin College
May 18, 2017
by Christopher Hyde

I don’t know whose idea it was, but getting pianist Awadagin Pratt to play quintets with the DaPonte String Quartet for its 25th anniversary celebration was a stroke of genius.

A full house at Bowdoin’s Studzinski Recital Hall was treated to two masterpieces of the genre—the Dvorak Quintet for Piano and Strings in A Major, Op. 81, and the Brahms Quintet for Piano and Strings in F Minor, Op. 34.

The DaPonte was its usual energetic and thoughtful self, alternating between Ferdinand Liva and Lydia Forbes at first violin in the Dvorak and the Brahms respectively. Pratt, however, was phenomenal.

He was the first student at Peabody Conservatory to receive diplomas in piano, violin, and conducting, and it shows. There could not be a better partner for any string quartet. He is a virtuoso when needed and an equal partner at other times, with an uncanny ability to blend in, as if the piano were another stringed instrument. Above all, he listens.

Watching him at the keyboard, I thought immediately of Brahms, thinking through a multitude of permutations and dictating his comments from the piano. All that was needed was a cigar for the resemblance to be perfect.

Either one of the quintets could have degenerated into a piano concerto at any time, but Pratt never let that happen, even in the concluding movement of the Brahms, where there is an explosive passage that outshines, in terms of pyrotechnics, most codas in the concerto literature.

The two works on the program are very different.The Dvorak, which began the celebration, is the quintessence of melody, beginning with a ravishing first theme and never letting up. The Dumka was particularly fine, a reverie with fleeting images of past delights, all perfectly characterized.

The Brahms is more thoroughly composed, building on motifs rather than long-limbed songs, but equally effective and even more passionate. If there were balance issues caused by substituting a Steinway grand for a Graf wooden-framed piano (for which the quintet was composed) I could not hear them.

The most exciting section of the Brahms quintet was the Scherzo: Allegro, a tribute to Robert Schumann in the form of a ferocious march with cross-rhythms that could be one of the older composer’s odes to the Davidsbundler.

The concluding movement begins with a dirge-like theme which soon gives way to the triumphant piano part mentioned earlier.
Both performances received well-deserved standing ovations with unexpected cheers and whistles.

Must be something in the air section: In its July concert series, the DaPonte will play Samuel Barber’s Adagio for Strings, recently performed by the Portland Symphony Orchestra, while the August series will showcase soprano Kate Aldrich (who recently sang at a gala for Opera Maine) performing Dover Beach, featured at another gala for the Portland Chamber Music Festival. For details of these concerts, go to www.daponte.org.

The Summer King, First Performance

I’m sorry I wasn’t able to get to the Pittsburgh Premiere of “The Summer King,” but what I wrote about it in the Press Herald three  years ago seems prescient.

“The Summer King”

Merrill Auditorium

May 8

by Christopher Hyde

Sometimes taking a risk pays off. Portland Ovations went out on a limb when it decided to stage the world premiere of “The Summer KIng,” an opera about baseball great Josh Gibson by Maine composer Daniel Sonenberg.

A large and appreciative audience at Merrill Auditorium last night demonstrated loudly that they had made the right choice. That the opera was performed without a set detracted little from its effect, due to the dramatic talents of the cast and clever stage direction by Lemuel Wade.

Sonenberg’s music for the tragedy–he also wrote the lyrics, in collaboration with Daniel Nester– is eclectic, containing modern classical, jazz and Latin styles, but also has a voice of its own, sardonic, wistful, lyrical or tragic, illuminating nearly every situation expressively.

I use the word tragedy advisedly. All operas end badly, but Is the famous slugger of the Negro Leagues, Josh Gibson, a tragic figure? HIs rise, betrayal and fall influenced a large, self-contained world (the Negro Leagues), and helped make possible the integration of the American pastime, while he had enough hubris for King Lear.

In some ways he seems childlike, but as played and sung by Stephen Salters, Gibson was aware of how much had been lost, even in his final madness.

“The Summer King” has a number of what Sonenberg calls “set pieces,” most of them effective and some, such as the love duet between Josh and his wife Helen, sung by Candice Hoyes, and reprised at the end of the opera, quite moving.

Villains always steal the scene, and the slimy Washington Senators owners, Clark Griffith, sung by Patrick MIller and his nephew, Calviin Griffith, sung by Kyle Guglielmo, are no exception as they cry crocodile tears over the possible ill-treatment of Josh in the major leagues.

There is even a mad scene, as Gibson holds an imaginary conversation with Joe DiMaggio.

All of the singers in the opera are first rate, but Lori-Kaye Miller, as Josh’s ambitious girlfriend, Grace, deserves special mention, as does the crusading reporter, sung by Rishi Rane, and Josh’s friend, Sammy, sung by Kenneth Kellogg.

The premiere was further enhanced by two outstanding choruses, Vox Nova Chamber Choir, and The Boy Singers of Maine Concert Choir, which appeared in a short, uplifting epilogue, plus a large professional orchestra under music director Steven Osgood.

Predictions by music critics have a way of falling flat, but judging by the audience response on Thursday, “The Summer KIng”,sails trimmed and fully staged, could become an American classic.

Back Cove Festival Opens on a High Note

Back Cove Contemporary Music Festival
Woodford’s Congregational Church
April 7, 2017
by Christopher Hyde

I came to the Back Cove Contemporary Music Festival (April 7, 8, 9) to hear the world premiere of Elliott Schwartz’s String Quartet No. 3 (“Portrait for Deedee”) played by the Portland String Quartet.
The quartet, Schwartz’ final work before his death last year, was all that I had hoped, but it was surrounded by other fine works, most of them in traditional forms, without the experimentalism that usually characterizes such festivals.

Looking at the programs for Saturday and Sunday, the remaining two days appear to be equally accessible.

The Portland String Quartet realized the Schwartz composition, written in memory of his wife, Deedee, almost perfectly. While it includes many of the composer’s mannerisms, such as musical quotes and use of the alphabet and numerology to generate motifs, it is considerably more dark in color than most of his work. I hesitate to use the word “tragic” in reference to one known for his unfailing good humor in the face of adversity.

The quartet also seems more thoroughly composed. The recurrent themes are developed and maintained, while the quotes, from his wife’s favorite music, fit in perfectly, like ghostly comments on the score. This promises to become one of Schwartz’s most popular works, almost making one believe in the magical power of numbers.

As for the rest of the program, I was particularly impressed by the work of the Portland Piano Trio, consisting of Tracey Jasas-Hardel, violin, Benjamin Noyes, cello, and Anastasia Antonacos, piano. They played four difficult works, in a variety of styles, with both spirit and understanding, an unusual combination.

They began the evening with “Number the Clouds,” by Delvyn Case, a dense and atmospheric setting of the Book of Job. After intermission, Case also contributed a highly effective musiking of “The Lord’s Prayer,” sung by soprano Elizabeth Marshall, accompanied by Harold Stover on the organ. Marshall performed the difficult feat of maintaining perfect intervals against the equal temperament of the organ.

Stover also played his own “Five Preludes on American Folk Hymns,” coaxing voices from the Woodford’s organ never heard before. The variations were truly amazing, even though I didn’t know most of the tunes. I wonder what he could do with “A Mighty Fortress…”

The Portland Trio finished the evening with Trio No. 1, by Nancy Gunn; “Choreodography (sic) No. 2” by Francis Kayali, a student of Elliott Schwartz; and  “Ancestry Variations” by Stepahie Ann Boyd, which takes a folk tune and varies it according to the styles of some famous composers. Entertaining and well-written, it was probably the most traditional of the three.

Gunn’s trio was also relatively tonal, with a driving, almost violent first movement, contrasted with a slower, nostalgic second.

Kayali’s offering was almost as quirky as Stover’s variations, consisting of Schoenbergian manipulations of a theme (not a tone row), which dissolve into a puddle of tonality.

Many of the composers were in the audience, accepting warm applause with the performers.

Christopher Hyde is a writer and musician who lives in Pownal, He can be reached at classbeat@netscape.net.

Operatic Pops Take On New Luster at MIdcoast

Midcoast Symphony
Franco Center, Lewiston
March 18, 2017
by Christopher Hyde

Mark Twain would have loved Saturday night’s concert of the Midcoast Symphony Orchestra at Lewiston’s Franco Center.

Twain famously remarked that the trouble with opera was sitting through interminable periods of non-musical scene-setting to get to the good parts. On Saturday, the orchestra, under the direction of guest conductor Eric Hewitt, played nothing but the good parts.

One striking aspect of the performance was how much the good parts are sort of a Cliff’s Notes of the opera as a whole, epitomizing , if not the plot, then the emotional atmosphere of the work. Could it be that the composer himself merely used the libretto as an excuse for whatever arias he had in mind?

The Intermezzo from Puccini’s “Manon Lescaut,” for example, tells all one needs to know about the principal character and her fate. It was lushly Romantic and tragic at the same time, played with just the right amount of reserved emotion and tragic portent.

The orchestra entered into the spirit of the works, all quite familiar, with much more enthusiasm than is characteristic of professional (by that I mean for-pay) ensembles. Their interpretation of the “Liebestod” from “Tristan und Isolde” should never have been allowed in mixed company. It is the most graphic depiction of intercourse, raised to the level of religion, ever composed. The climactic measures were earth-shattering,  the best I have ever heard, (and I dislike Wagner with equal passion).

Another aspect of these operatic works is the extreme difficulty of the orchestration. Many of them were re-composed as display pieces, poster children for the operas themselves. Richard Strauss’ Waltz Sequence No. 1 from “Der Rosenkavalier,” (Opus 139), which concluded the program, is the orchestral equivalent of a Godowski piano transcription of “The Blue Danube,” by another Strauss, quite impossible to play. The Midcoast did it anyway, and aside from a few minor glitches, managed it admirably, once again creating a perfect impression of the opera as a whole, as well as illustrating Strauss’s excessive love of the French horn.

I could hear Baron Ochs, besieged in a tavern by a flock of his illegitimate offspring, shouting “Papa. papa,” and muttering to his servant: “Leopold, wir gehens.”

The longest work of the evening was BIzet’s “Carmen” Suite, No. 2, in an arrangement by Ernesto Guiraud which includes some of the lesser-known interludes. It was also very well played, with an authentic Spanish-French flavor and virtuoso work by the trumpet and piccolo.

The regular conductor of the Midcoast, Rohan Smith, was playing in the violin section. I don’t know if he will appear at this afternoon’s concert at the Orion Center in Topsham, but it will be well worth attending in any event.

Christopher Hyde is a writer and musician who lives in Pownal, He can be reached a classbeat@netscape.net.

A Traditional “Magic of Christmas”

Portland Symphony Orchestra
“Magic of Christmas”
Merrill Auditorium
Dec. 9, 2016
by Christopher Hyde

Perhaps it’s the world situation, but the Portland Symphony Orchestra’s “Magic of Christmas” concert, on Friday’s opening night at Merrill Auditorium, seemed more movingly traditional than usual, emphasizing the orchestra and chorus, with a remarkable soprano, Elizabeth Marshall.

It was the first time I had seen the new assistant conductor, Andrew Crust, who did an admirable job as master of the Magic of Christmas Chorus, and in alternating as orchestral conductor with music director Robert Moody.

Tania Holt and Alexander Fedorchev, of Cirque de la Symphony, held the audience spellbound with their athletic feats on silk fabric 30 feet above the stage. Their duos were romantic enough to provoke a comment from Moody to the effect that the audience would either rush out to take gymnastic lessons or buy a Harlequin Romance.

As usual, the arrangements of Christmas favorites were a mixed bag, ranging from pedestrian—Anderson’s Christmas Festival Overture— to superb —the Rutter/Adam “O Holy Night,”—marred only by an unnecessary modulation in the second verse.

I would go to this concert again (December 10, 16, and 17 at 2:00 p.m. and 7:30 p.m., Dec. 11 and 18 at 1:00 p.m. and 5:00 p.m.) just to hear Marshall’s sweet but powerful voice hitting the high notes of “O Holy Night” without effort.

She also appeared in another French traditional song, “Quelle est cette odeur agréable?” with the Magic of Christmas Chorus, and in the Rouse arrangement of “I Heard the Bells on Christmas Day.” I prefer the more common tune, whether original or not, but will accept the alternative if it leads to another soprano solo over massed chorus and orchestra.

An unexpected combination of voice and orchestra was especially effective, pairing a section from Ravel’s “”Ma merè l’Oye,” “The Enchanted Garden,” with a contemporary Life of Christ read dramatically by Mathew Faberge.

Crust’s work with the chorus was outstanding, although the large, traditional group of 108, still needs a few more good bass voices. It was particularly good in an up-tempo “Hallelujah” chorus, for which the American audience stood like good subjects of King George.

The desire of that audience for some old-fashioned Christmas cheer was apparent in the concluding Christmas Carol sing-along, which was enthusiastic, with some audible evidence of part singing.

Judging from the reaction of the children seated near me, this year’s production holds attention very well, even without Santa Claus.

Christopher Hyde is a writer and musician who lives in Pownal. He can be reached at classbeat@netscape.net.

VentiCordi Explores the Unusual

VentiCordi
Studzinsky Recital Hall, Bowdoin College
Oct. 29, 2016
by Christopher Hyde

While the musical avant garde set off in various directions, some rewarding and some not, many composers continued to write good, solid and interesting music in traditional forms, while also taking advantage of what Schoenberg called “the liberation of the dissonance.”

Last night’s concert by VentiCordi (wind and strings) at Bowdoin’s Studzinsky Hall, provided substantial proof of just how rewarding this style of music can be. All of the works were thoroughly enjoyable and some broke new ground with old tools, like St.-Saens. It is doubtful that anyone in the audience had heard these works before, but they were all readily accessible, beginning with a fine Trio for Flute, Oboe and Piano by British composer Madeleine Dring,(1923-1977) who wrote it for her husband.

It explores (very) close harmony between the woodwind instruments, and their subtle differences in timbre. One sometimes felt that the oboe became less “reedy” in close collaboration with the flute. It was given an outstanding performance by Bridget Convey, piano, Sarah Brady, flute and Kathleen McNerney, oboe.

McNerney appeared again, with noted double bass player William Blossom, in “Three Songs for Oboe and Double Bass, after poems by Pablo Neruda,” by Andrea Clearfield (b. 1960). The combination of instruments, as unusual as it is, was ideal for exploring the interplay of male and female as portrayed in Neruda’s erotic poems: “Body of a Woman,” “The Light Wraps You,” and “Every Day You Play.”

Erwin Schulhoff (1894-1942), who died of tuberculosis in a Nazi concentration camp, was once known for a relatively few works and the tragedy of a career cut short. Now that more of his compositions have been uncovered, he seems rather like Prokofiev, both daring and playful. As VentiCordi co-founder, violinist Dean Stein, said in opening remarks, Schulhoff wrote a piano piece consisting entirely of rests and indications, long before John Cage’s “4-33.”

His Concertino for Flute, Viola and Double Bass, played by Stein, Brady and Convey, sounded a bit like Prokofiev, without the Russian influences, especially in the comically quick-step Rondino that ends the work, in which the flautist switches to a piccolo for the final squeak.

I had heard the “Schilflieder” (Songs of the Reeds) for Oboe, Viola and Piano of August Klughardt (1847-1902) once before and remarked that it sounded like Brahms after one too many steins at the Red Hedgehog. Convey muted the piano part a bit this time, for a better balance of the parts, and a more lyrical, less bombastic, feel. No matter how interpreted, it is a thoroughly enjoyable piece of late Romanticism, full of Brahmsian harmonies and gentle melancholy.

The Trio for Flute, Violin and Piano (1958), that ended the program, was a virtuosic tour de force by Nino Rota, composer of the first two “Godfather” scores. Not very emotionally moving, without the images on the screen, but exciting throughout, concluding with a fantastically rapid Allegro vivace con spirito.

The program will be repeated Sunday, Nov. 6, at 2:00 pm. at Woodfords Congregational Church in Portland.

“Duke Bluebeard’s Castle”

“Duke Bluebeard’s Castle”
by Christopher Hyde
Oct. 25, 2016

“Behind every great fortune is a crime.” I used to repeat that quote from Balzac to get a rise out of my friends in New York, who were utterly convinced that great wealth was an outward sign of inner virtue. But that was long ago and in another country, and besides, the wench is dead. Today the quote is a truism, and I thought of it only in connection with the Portland Symphony Orchestra’s production of “Duke Bluebeard’s Castle” on Nov. 1, a daring must-see presentation if there ever was one.

Volumes have been written about the opera, Bartok’s earliest stage work. (The final version was written in 1921.). Like Brahms, he found it difficult to summon up the requisite stupidity. It is most probably an allegory of the artist’s relations with the world, the castle being his mind, and his final wife the public. Bartok was feeling very alone at the time, striking out in new directions that were not very well received, if at all. In a letter to his mother he stated his belief that he would be alone forever.

In the opera, every door that the new wife, Judith, opens, reveals something beautiful but awful—the jewels are stained with blood and the lake is composed of tears. The last chamber, which contains the wraiths of former wives, holds nothing but darkness. The dark secrets behind each door are portrayed by a minor second chord.

Intellectually, the blood represents the pain and struggle of the composer to realize his visions—something he wishes to conceal from his audience, as an artist destroys his preliminary sketches.

There is another reading, however, that also makes sense. Bartok was becoming increasingly alarmed by the rise of fascism in Hungary and wanted to show, on some level, that all of its promises, and the great fortunes of a few, were tainted by blood and tears, and eventually would come to nothing except destruction. As the man, Bluebeard, reveals more and more, the woman, Judith, becomes weaker and weaker, finally vanishing into the darkness, while her husband (in his vocal line) becomes ever stronger.

With its use of folk idiom to portray the tragedy, the opera can also be read as “curiosity killed the cat.” The story of Bluebeard, and woman’s frailty, is as old as the hills.

Bartok’s vision of the castle is dark indeed, but the music, which owes a great deal to Debussy, raises it to the level of Greek tragedy. In this silly season, we could all use a good catharsis.

And there is always the delightful Bach Concerto for Two Violins—also on the program— to remind us that there is still goodness on the earth.

Christopher Hyde is a writer and musician who lives in Pownal. He can be reached at classbeat@netscape.net.